execl, execlp, execle, execv, execvp, execvpe - execute a file
#include <unistd.h> extern char **environ; int execl(const char *pathname, const char *arg, ... /* (char *) NULL */); int execlp(const char *file, const char *arg, ... /* (char *) NULL */); int execle(const char *pathname, const char *arg, ... /*, (char *) NULL, char *const envp */); int execv(const char *pathname, char *const argv); int execvp(const char *file, char *const argv); int execvpe(const char *file, char *const argv, char *const envp);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
The exec() family of functions replaces the current process image with a new process image. The functions described in this manual page are layered on top of execve(2). (See the manual page for execve(2) for further details about the replacement of the current process image.)
The initial argument for these functions is the name of a file that is to be executed.
The functions can be grouped based on the letters following the "exec" prefix.
const char *arg and subsequent ellipses can be thought
argn. Together they
describe a list of one or more pointers to null-terminated strings that
represent the argument list available to the executed program. The first
argument, by convention, should point to the filename associated with
the file being executed. The list of arguments
terminated by a null pointer, and, since these are variadic functions,
this pointer must be cast
(char *) NULL.
By contrast with the 'l' functions, the 'v' functions (below) specify the command-line arguments of the executed program as a vector.
char *const argv argument is an array of pointers to
null-terminated strings that represent the argument list available to
the new program. The first argument, by convention, should point to the
filename associated with the file being executed. The array of pointers
must be terminated by a null pointer.
The environment of the caller is specified via the argument
envp argument is an array of pointers to
null-terminated strings and
must be terminated by a null
All other exec() functions (which do not include 'e'
in the suffix) take the environment for the new process image from the
environ in the calling process.
These functions duplicate the actions of the shell in searching for
an executable file if the specified filename does not contain a slash
(/) character. The file is sought in the colon-separated list of
directory pathnames specified in the PATH environment
variable. If this variable isn't defined, the path list defaults to a
list that includes the directories returned by
confstr(_CS_PATH) (which typically returns the value
"/bin:/usr/bin") and possibly also the current working directory; see
NOTES for further details.
If the specified filename includes a slash character, then PATH is ignored, and the file at the specified pathname is executed.
In addition, certain errors are treated specially.
If permission is denied for a file (the attempted
execve(2) failed with the error
EACCES), these functions will continue searching the
rest of the search path. If no other file is found, however, they will
errno set to EACCES.
If the header of a file isn't recognized (the attempted
execve(2) failed with the error
ENOEXEC), these functions will execute the shell
/bin/sh) with the path of the file as its first argument. (If
this attempt fails, no further searching is done.)
All other exec() functions (which do not include 'p' in the suffix) take as their first argument a (relative or absolute) pathname that identifies the program to be executed.
The exec() functions return only if an error has
occurred. The return value is -1, and
errno is set to indicate
The default search path (used when the environment does not contain
the variable PATH) shows some variation across systems.
It generally includes
/usr/bin (in that
order) and may also include the current working directory. On some other
systems, the current working is included after
/usr/bin, as an anti-Trojan-horse measure. The glibc
implementation long followed the traditional default where the current
working directory is included at the start of the search path. However,
some code refactoring during the development of glibc 2.24 caused the
current working directory to be dropped altogether from the default
search path. This accidental behavior change is considered mildly
beneficial, and won't be reverted.
The behavior of execlp() and execvp() when errors occur while attempting to execute the file is historic practice, but has not traditionally been documented and is not specified by the POSIX standard. BSD (and possibly other systems) do an automatic sleep and retry if ETXTBSY is encountered. Linux treats it as a hard error and returns immediately.
Traditionally, the functions execlp() and execvp() ignored all errors except for the ones described above and ENOMEM and E2BIG, upon which they returned. They now return if any error other than the ones described above occurs.
Before glibc 2.24, execl() and execle() employed realloc(3) internally and were consequently not async-signal-safe, in violation of the requirements of POSIX.1. This was fixed in glibc 2.24.
On sparc and sparc64, execv() is provided as a
system call by the kernel (with the prototype shown above) for
compatibility with SunOS. This function is
not employed by the
execv() wrapper function on those architectures.
This page is part of release 5.10 of the Linux
project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs,
and the latest version of this page, can be found at