strtoul, strtoull, strtouq - convert a string to an unsigned long integer
#include <stdlib.h> unsigned long strtoul(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base); unsigned long long strtoull(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):
_ISOC99_SOURCE || || /* Glibc versions <= 2.19: */ _SVID_SOURCE || _BSD_SOURCE
The strtoul() function converts the initial part of
the string in
nptr to an
unsigned long value according
to the given
base, which must be between 2 and 36 inclusive, or
be the special value 0.
The string may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as
determined by isspace(3)) followed by a single optional
'+' or '-' sign. If
base is zero or 16, the string may then
include a "0x" prefix, and the number will be read in base 16;
otherwise, a zero
base is taken as 10 (decimal) unless the next
character is '0', in which case it is taken as 8 (octal).
The remainder of the string is converted to an
value in the obvious manner, stopping at the first character which is
not a valid digit in the given base. (In bases above 10, the letter 'A'
in either uppercase or lowercase represents 10, 'B' represents 11, and
so forth, with 'Z' representing 35.)
endptr is not NULL, strtoul() stores the
address of the first invalid character in
*endptr. If there
were no digits at all, strtoul() stores the original
*endptr (and returns 0). In
*nptr is not '\0' but
**endptr is '\0'
on return, the entire string is valid.
The strtoul() function returns either the result of
the conversion or, if there was a leading minus sign, the negation of
the result of the conversion represented as an unsigned value, unless
the original (nonnegated) value would overflow; in the latter case,
strtoul() returns ULONG_MAX and sets
errno to ERANGE. Precisely the same holds for
strtoull() (with ULLONG_MAX instead of
See the example on the strtol(3) manual page; the use of the functions described in this manual page is similar.
(not in C99) The given
base contains an unsupported
The resulting value was out of range.
The implementation may also set
EINVAL in case no conversion was performed (no digits
seen, and 0 returned).
Since strtoul() can legitimately return 0 or
ULONG_MAX (ULLONG_MAX for
strtoull()) on both success and failure, the calling
program should set
errno to 0 before the call, and then
determine if an error occurred by checking whether
errno has a
nonzero value after the call.
In locales other than the "C" locale, other strings may be accepted. (For example, the thousands separator of the current locale may be supported.)
BSD also has
u_quad_t strtouq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);
Negative values are considered valid input and are silently converted
to the equivalent
unsigned long value.
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